Crisis Response Teams

The R-Model is a violence prevention protocol for K-12 schools and other organizations using Crisis Response Teams (CRT). Using this model, schools and organizations get ready by setting up a team and protocols, respond to students in crisis, refer students to support and resources, and revisit to continually check in with that student. The R-Model was originally developed as a law enforcement protocol and has since been adapted into a school-based crisis intervention and violence prevention model (Peterson, Densley, & Erickson, 2019).

This protocol offers a new way of thinking about behavioral threat assessment. Sometimes, behavior that
is concerning is not inherently threatening. Based on what we know about school and organizational violence, it is
critical to investigate any signs of a crisis, not only threats of violence.

4-Step R-Model Overview
Crisis Intervention 4-Step Model
4D’s Behaviors to Report
Solutions Overview

Fillable Forms

Form 1: Making a Report
Form 2: Establishing A Crisis Response Team
Form 3: Resource List
Form 4: Crisis Response
Form 5: Interview Form
Form 6: Individualized Plan of Support
Form 7: Revisit

You can read our research evaluating Crisis Response Teams and de-escalation training for law enforcement in SAGE Journals here.

A full PDF is available on our Data page.

The road to violence is long – let’s build more exits.